Lead in: A diagnostic accuracy study of a new test to diagnose UTI in women reveals following data.
1. What is the sensitivity of the new test?
2. What is the specificity of new test?
3. What is the PPV of new test?
4. What is the NPV of new test?
4. What is the NPV of new test?
New diagnostic study is being evaluated for its accuracy to diagnose Hydatidiform mole. The sensitivity was 70% and specificity was 90%. In the study there were 100 patients who truly had H.mole and 200 who truly did not.
5.How many false negatives in the study?
6. How many false positive in the study?
A new study showed the mean Hb level in high risk pregnancy was 10g% and in Normal pregnancy was 11g%. The probability that this was due to chance was 0.05. And the probability of telling there is no difference when there is in reality is 0.15.
7. What is the p vale?
8. What is the power?
Option list :
The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Trial (WOSCOP) study was a randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of Pravastatin (a cholesterol lowering “statin” drug) in several thousand men with hypercholesterolemia, but no previous history of coronary heart disease, over a 5 year period. There were 100 “events” in the 3,000 men in the intervention arm, and 200 “events” in the 3,000 men in the placebo arm.
9. The relative risk in the above study is?
10. The relative risk reduction in the above study is?
11. What is the Absolute risk reduction in the above study?
12. The number needed to treat in the above study is?
A test for the presence of cancer has an 80% true positive rate and a 2% false positive rate.
13. Of 25 patients with cancer, how many can be expected to have a negative result?
14. Of 50 patients known not to have cancer, how many will have a negative result?
C. Audio visual
E. Discussion group
F. Practice by doing
G. Teach others/Imitate
The above are different learning methods. Lecture is delivering information. Reading is self regulated activity. Audio visual is looking at a video of a particular concept explanation with flow chart and animations. Demonstration is showing of how it is done by a teacher. Discussion groups are people who try to solve a problem by themselves in a series of sessions. Practice by doing is repeating the skills oneself. Teaching others is to transfer your knowledge and skill to others and making them learns.
15. Which of the learning method has least retention rate has the least average retention rate?
16. Which of the learning method has maximum retention rate?
B. The Delphi technique
C. Direct observation of procedures with feedback
E. The 1-minute preceptor
F. Peer coaching
G. Problem-based learning
H. Schema activation
I. Schema refinement
J. Simplified procedural hierarchy
K. Complex procedural hierarchy
M. Self directed learning
Following are few scenarios in a teaching set up. Choose appropriate T-L method.
17. A consultant asks a trainee to assist in the operation of total abdominal hysterectomy. After several such operations, during which the educational experience of the trainee consists of observing surgical techniques, there is a rapport between the consultant and the trainee. The consultant then asks the trainee to describe the operation in order to ascertain that they have grasped the steps, techniques and use of instruments that are vital to a safely conducted operation. The consultant then assists the trainee in the procedure. After several operations with ongoing assessment, evaluation and feedback, the consultant and trainee are in a position to judge progress. The safety of patients is of paramount consideration. The trainee is capable of carrying out uncomplicated abdominal hysterectomy independently; consultant assigns the task to trainee to carry out the operation while assisted by another trainee. The consultant would be immediately available. What is the above technique?
18. In the task of teaching ethics to a group of 12 embryologists for 2 hours. The teacher is unsure of their current understanding of the subject. He starts by getting the students, in groups provide them bit of information and asks them, to discuss the terms of the Abortion Act 1967 with each other. Later this pair would discuss among other pair. And the group size increases to a certain limit, and then he bases further teaching on the knowledge displayed by the students.
19. A teacher has been asked to instruct junior trainees on how to carry out diagnostic laparoscopy. The teacher initially shows the trainees how to assemble the laparoscopic equipment. No element of assessment and feedback was present. What is the above technique?
20. A teacher uses a tutorial on the anatomy, physiology and endocrinology appropriate to amenorrhea followed by a series of clinical cases including post chemotherapy amenorrhea, Turner syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Where the students are asked to recall their learning from tutorials and apply to solve clinical problems. What is the above technique?
21. A consultant wants to teach examination of breast to a group of trainees. He is unsure of their present anatomy knowledge and wants to help them recall and which technique he would use?
22. A trainee is asked to examine suspected ectopic pregnant women. After he does, the consultant asks the diagnosis, and the corroborative evidence for the same. He explains the general rules of ectopic and corrects his mistakes while giving encouragement for his correctly done steps. What is this technique?
23. Several rounds of questionnaire were sent to panel of experts regarding guidelines for treatment of HIV positive pregnant women. After each round the expert opinion was anonymously summarized and the reason for their opinion and judgment was also given. After every round the expert were given an option of revising their opinion till an expert guideline was reached. What is this technique?
24. A teacher observes an intern carrying out a task of inserting urinary catheter. He also records the steps and makes judgment. He then informs the learner of the opinion that has been formed and to demonstrate how the procedure should have been done. He informs the learner of the opinion that has been formed and to demonstrate how the procedure should have been done. What is this technique?
A. Unpaired t test
B. Paired t test
C. Mann whitney U test
D. Wilcoxan sign rank test
E. One way ANOVA
F. Kruskal Wallis test
G. Chi square test
H. Fischer’s exact test
I. Pearson’s correlation test
J. Spearman correlation test
K. Simple linear regression
L. Multiple regression
M. Percentage difference
Study was conducted to assess if BMI was higher in 200 women with GDM compared to those without. BMI and FPG were normally distributed. They estimated height, weight, Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, Insulin level. They also noted down family history of DM, previous history of GDM and Insulin resistance by HOMA IR
25. Which test is appropriate for establishing that BMI was in fact higher in women with GDM in the above study?