A. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
B. Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)
C. Cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4)
D. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
E. Epithelial tumour antigen (ETA)
G. α-Fetoprotein (AFP)
H. Homeobox protein CDX2
I. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
J. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4)
M. Beta HCG
For each of the following situations, choose the single most appropriate tumour marker from the list of options above. Each option may be chosen once, more than once or not at all.
1. A compound produced by both the Sertoli cells of the testis and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary, belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily.
2. A steroid that is almost undetectable in the non-pregnant female, but whose levels rise >1000-fold during pregnancy and choriocarcinoma.
3. A compound that is elevated in women with an ovarian dysgerminoma, and also in third trimester of pregnancy.